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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15332/us.v20i0.2524

Efecto del ejercicio físico sobre la condición física en adultos con lesión medular: una revisión sistemática

Daniel Efrén García-González, Carolina Sandoval-Cuellar

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Resumen

Esta revisión pretende determinar el efecto del ejercicio físico sobre la capacidad física, fuerza-resistencia muscular, composición corporal y rendimiento funcional en adultos con lesión medular. La búsqueda sistemática se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed, Trip Medical Database, Scopus, Web of Science, Registro Cochrane Central de Ensayos Controlados, Scielo y ScienceDirect entre los años 1990-2016. Se identificaron 2906 artículos en las bases de datos consultadas. El 31% de los estudios incluidos fueron realizados en Canadá, 46,1% en Estados Unidos y Australia, 15,3% en Holanda y 7,6% en Brasil, el tiempo post operatorio para intervención con ejercicio físico osciló entre 11,58 meses y los 24 años. El 100% de los estudios reportaron el protocolo de intervención utilizado en términos de longitud, duración, frecuencia e intensidad, el 46% de los estudios reportó niveles de lesión medular. Los resultados de las intervenciones mediadas a través de ejercicio físico sobre los componentes de la salud física en pacientes con lesión medular son alentadores. Los estudios analizados evidencian los beneficios sobre la capacidad física, fuerza y resistencia muscular, composición corporal y rendimiento funcional en pacientes con lesión medular que favorecen la calidad de vida y el bienestar psicológico de dicha población.


Palabras clave

Traumatismos de la médula espinal; ejercicio; fuerza muscular; composición corporal; entrenamiento de resistencia

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